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Karna is a city and the headquarters of Karnal District in the Indian state of Haryana and Karnal District. Since 20 January 2014 it has is now under National Capital Region Planning Board as a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi, which is the largest urban conglomerate in the world. Karnal was also known as Karnaal, Kurnaul or Karnaul during the British Raj.

Karnal is governed by a municipal corporation that comes under the Karnal Metropolitan Region (which is in A2 category of seven cities in the State of Haryana which have municipal corporations ). Karnal Cantonment was once the site of a cantonment of the British East Indian Company army established in the year 1805 AD but later were forced to leave due to malaria outbreak ,whereas there were no known effective control & remedies in those days and this very Karnal Cantonment was subsequently shifted to Ambala and later came to be known as the Ambala Cantonment established in 1843 AD.

Karnal is said to have been founded by Karna, a key figure in the epic Mahabharata.[1] It is midway between Delhi and Chandigarh, being 123 km (76 mi) north of Delhi and 126 km (78 mi) south of Chandigarh, on the National Highway NH-1, also known as the Grand Trunk Road. Delhi and Chandigarh can be reached from Karnal within 2 hours using a high frequency bus service provided by Haryana Roadways, Punjab Roadways and Delhi Roadways. Karnal is also the headquarters of Karnal Range (including Karnal, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra and Kaithal districts) under an Inspector General of Police.

Karnal is very famous for its world class research and development institutes, namely Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Directorate of Wheat Research (DWR), National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), and a regional centre of the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Karnal is widely known for its lush green pastures, and the cultivation and production of very high-quality basmati rice. Karnal is one of the major shoes industry of India. Karnal is known as the rice bowl of India. It has got the highest district wise exports of basmati rice from India with major of exports to Gulf countries. There are more than 300 rice miller and processors in Karnal district with around 100 exporters. Karnal is also famous for manufacture of agricultural implements and its spares as more than 40%] of country agricultural implements and spares are manufactured here. One of the bigger units involved in the manufacture of spares is Karnal Agricultural Industries Ltd. having largest manufacturing base in the country.

Karnal is located at 29.68°N 76.98°E.[2] It has an elevation of 235 to 252  meters (748 feet) above Sea Level. It is roughly equidistant almost midway from New Delhi and Chandigarh & almost in center heart of Haryana state and lies on the main G.T. road and on the Delhi - Ambala-Kalka i.e. DUK then known as Delhi-Ambala-Kalka railway line in olden days and has Railway short index name code as KUN and KARNAL RAILWAY STATION was Established in 1892 A.D. year . The Karnal Distt. is surrounded by Kurukshetra District on its north-west, jind & Kaithal Distt. on its west, Panipat Distt. on its south and Uttar Pradesh on east. Yamuna River forms eastern boundary of the district and flows from north to south. The district is a part of the Ganges–Indus (Indo-Gangetic) plains and has a well spread network of western Yamuna canal. Its geographical area has been divided into three agro climatic regions, Khadar, Bhangar and Nardak belt. Khadar starts from Indri-Karnal road one mile away from Karnal covering the area in between Yamuna River and National Highway Road No.1 up to Patti-Kalyana village. Bhangar area starts from west of Khaadar area covering Gharaunda, development block. The nardak area lies in Nissing, Nilokheri and Assandh development block. However, its water is saline and not fit for irrigation. The city is divided into several sectors, colonies and mohallas. Due to its strategic location, several big-brand builders like CHD Developers, Narsi Village, Palm Residency, Alpha International City, Sahara and Ansal Royale etc. . have built new luxury apartments and vilkhkhᾩcity. Naruson House one of the biggest house in the city is situated at The Mall known as Thandi sadak Karnal. It about 40.85 km from village Rangrutti Khera.

HistoryEdit

The original name of Karnal city is Karnalaya (home of Karna). It has been a walled town as far as its history can be traced.[citation needed] It is said that it had 10 gates. Some of these remain, i.e., Karn Gate, Kalandari Gate, Arjun Gate, Subhash Gate, Jaataan Gate, Jundla Gate, Baanson Gate, Dyalpura Gate, and a citadel. Karnal sprang into prominence in 1739 when Persian emperor Nadir Shah defeated and captured the Mughal ruler Muhammad Shah in the Battle of Karnal. Raja Gopal Singh of Jind seized Karnal in 1763, and the Marathas established themselves at Karnal in 1785. Skirmishes followed between the Marathas and the Sikhs and in 1795, the Marathas finally wrested the city from Raja Bhag Singh of Jind and made it over to the British-Irish military commander George Thomas, who took part in the fight. The British established a cantonment in Karnal (then also known as Kurnaul, Karnaul, Kurnaul) called Karnal Cantonment in 1805 AD but later abandoned it due to an outbreak of malaria & this very same Karnal Cantonment was shifted to Ambala and later it was known as Ambala Cantonment established in 1843 AD. The fort which had been built by Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, was taken over by the British and converted into a residence for Dost Mohammad Khan, Amir of Kabul. The fort was used as a jail, as quarters for native cavalry and as a poorhouse. In 1862, it was made over to the Education Department, when the district school was moved into it from the city. Karnal was the part of Ambala distt. of Punjab till Haryana was found in 1966.

DemographicsEdit

As per provisional reports of 2011 census of India, population of Karnal in 2011 is 286,974; of which male and female are 151,668 and 135,306 respectively. Although Karnal city has population of 286,974; its urban population is 303,425 of which 160,659 are males and 142,766 are females. In education section, total literates in Karnal city are 220,711 of which 121,652 are males while 99,059 are females. Average literacy rate of Karnal city is 86.32 percent of which male and female literacy was 90.55 and 81.64 percent. The sex ratio of Karnal city is 892 females per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 807 per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6) in Karnal city are 31,291 as per figure from Census India report on 2011. There were 17,319 boys while 13,972 are girls. The child forms 10.90% of total population of Karnal City. The predominant religion here is Hinduism with a sizeable Sikh minority. Hindi & Punjabi are the major spoken languages.

IndustriesEdit

Liberty Shoes Limited

Olam Agro India Ltd. (Olam International)

J.I.Enterprises [Nadana road, taraori(karnal)]

Dunar Basmati Rice Mills, Karnal

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